Ayuba Peter ShuaI
Project Coordinator

Borno state is one of the most ancient kingdoms in Africa. Historical sources indicated that it started about the year 700 AD by the Nomadic Tebu-speaking kanembu ho were forced to move southwards around the fertile lands of the Lake Chad due to political and ecological pressures.

The modern-day Borno state was created out oof the defunct North-Eastern state in 1976 and further subdivided into two in 1991 when Yobe state was carved out of it to form the present state.

Borno state is described as a state with rich cultural historical background and moderately populated. Borno has a projected population of about 6.4Millon as at 2019, which is highly tilted towards children age 0-14(61.7%) and youth and young adult 15-44 (29.1%).

The climate of Borno state is broadly defined by 2 seasons; Wet and dry season. Rainy season last June to September, with dry season predominately from October to May. In terms of natural drainage, there are two groups of seasonal rivers. River Hawul drains the Biu Plateau southwards into the river Gongola which is part of the river Benue system. The river Ngadda and some short course rivers drain the northern part of the Plateau and flow northeast towards the Lake Chad while River Yedseram and its tributaries take their source on the Mandara mountains and flow northeast towards the Lake Chad.

The state has 27 Local government areas and its capital is located in Maiduguri.


Some of the most serious environmental problems of Borno State, Nigeria, are considered. These include desert encroachment, water shortage and conservation of water, human settlement and soil erosion, and municipal waste disposal in Maiduguri city.